Diabetes mellitus is a serious chronic disease caused by high blood sugar. Many people live with diabetes for many years and do not pay attention to the obvious symptoms of the disease. Insulin deficiency or ineffective effects in the body can affect rising sugar levels. It is important to note that diabetes is a disease with its own types. There are two main types of diabetes: insulin-dependent (type 1 diabetes) and non-insulin-dependent (type 2). The disease is incurable, and if a patient is diagnosed with the disease, it will accompany him for life.
People suffering from this disease are often interested in nutrition and foods that can be used in food to normalize and balance the body's metabolism. Preference should be given to vegetables, fruits, meat and dairy products. Today, doctors believe that proper nutrition is the best way to prevent diabetes. If you have already been diagnosed with diabetes, you need to find the right treatment (limit additional medications) and follow a proper diet. The most important thing is not to treat yourself when diagnosing such a disease, but to go to an endocrinologist who can tell you everything about diabetes, prescribe the necessary treatment, as well as explain how to behave properly and really live with diabetes. Many people do not think about how dangerous this disease is and how many people in the world die due to late diagnosis or complications caused by diabetes. In this article, we will look at the basic dietary rules for each type of diabetes and review the list of foods that are better to avoid and vice versa.
Diabetes mellitus type 1 diet
Type 1 diabetes is more dangerous and serious. When making this type of diagnosis, a person is given insulin injections, which must be done throughout life. Many do not follow a diet for diabetes, and therefore the disease can develop rapidly, cause complications and lead to various diseases.
The main treatment for patients with type 1 diabetes is to choose the right insulin and the right dose. It is very important that the doctor chooses the right drug, dose and helps to prepare the necessary diet, because it can also be individualized. Proper treatment is important for a patient with diabetes. If treatment is not started on time, the consequences can be severe. Of course, insulin itself will normalize blood sugar levels, but with the right diet, the number of injections per day can be reduced. Remember that only your attending physician should prescribe treatment and diet, because the first type of diabetes is very dangerous, and it is better not to "play" with it.
There is a special system for calculating the required insulin dose and calculating the food eaten, this system is called "Bread unit". According to this system, one loaf of bread is equal to 10-15 grams of carbohydrates. Simply put, a loaf of bread is, for example, an orange or a slice of bread. As a rule, doctors prepare a table in which the patient can record and monitor the level of bread units.
By the way, all doctors recommend keeping a diabetic diary, which should show all the foods and the amount eaten during the day. This will help the doctor to manage your disease and determine certain nuances. With type 1 diabetes, the key is to follow certain rules that will not differentiate you from a healthy person in any way. The main thing is that one meal should not exceed 7 loaves of bread. It is very important to calculate the insulin dose and bread units before each meal. The main thing to avoid is sugary drinks (lemonade, energy drinks, sweet tea, carbonated and just juicy juices) because they contain excessive amounts of sugar, which can significantly damage the patient's well-being and dramatically increase sugar levels.
Type 2 Diabetes Diet
Often, a person can develop type 2 diabetes due to obesity or overeating. With this disease, the main task is to normalize metabolism and carbohydrates. Remember that diabetes mellitus occurs only due to the consumption of large amounts of sugar, banal overeating can also lead to the development of the disease. The body does not produce enough insulin or the cells lose their sensitivity to it. As a rule, doctors recommend proper treatment (with pills), diet and active lifestyle (daily physical activity is what you need).
A proper diet for patients with type 2 diabetes, and those who are overweight and obese in general, can be properly selected and prescribed by an endocrinologist because the disease is endocrine. When prescribing a diet, the physician should interview the patient and clarify his or her gender, body weight, age category, and physical activity.
The second type of diet is based on weight loss and normalization of metabolism. Often a doctor can calculate the required number of calories per day. As a rule, the number of calories is calculated from the ratio of 1 kilogram of body weight - 20 calories for women and 25 for men. So, if you want, you can independently calculate the required number of calories per day. If a person is diagnosed with diabetes mellitus, it is important to remember that the diet must be followed regularly. This is why it is so important to set up a diet to be tasty, healthy and varied. But keep in mind that high-calorie foods and foods that increase blood sugar levels should be completely eliminated.
When planning a diet for diabetes, it is important to remember to eat more foods that contain plant fiber and water. Such products will help to satisfy the appetite and at the same time will not accumulate extra pounds in the body. The main thing is to lose weight, but you need to do it carefully enough not to gain more pounds later.
Calories and permissible amount per day
People with diabetes can often lose their diet due to acute and severe fasting and food restriction. Remember that the main thing in the diet is not to count the number of calories eaten, but just to eat the right foods. Under no circumstances should you count or try to limit calories, as this, on the contrary, can only exacerbate the disease and worsen the patient's well-being. Scientists claim that there is a diet that mainly affects the development of diabetes mellitus and the development of co-morbidities.
There is a so-called low-carbohydrate diet, which will naturally force you to give up some of the foods you love and eat regularly. At the same time you can choose the right foods and the diet will be quite tasty and filling. Just by eating a proper diet, you can control your blood sugar levels, and eating can be just as tasty and healthy at the same time. By the way, in 2012, scientists from Dubai conducted a study on the impact of a low-carbohydrate diet on the condition and well-being of patients, because patients who follow this diet are less likely to break down blood sugar levels and control it perfectly. painful and practically no special restrictions on the amount of food.
Eatable fruit with diabetes
In diabetes mellitus, special attention is paid to fruits, because they are fruits that contain a lot of fiber, but also contain many useful vitamins, trace elements and minerals. Their concentration is several times higher than other products. It should be noted that they contain mainly fructose and sucrose, but virtually no glucose.
If we compare all the possible fruits completely, we can distinguish only a few of them, because only certain fruits provide any value for the body. It should also be noted that the consumption of all fruits is not recommended, some fruits are contraindicated for diabetics.
Among the fruits recommended for diabetics are: grapefruit, lemon, orange, apple, apricot, peach, pear, pomegranate, various dried fruits (dried apricots, prunes, dried apples are recommended), among the berries -cherries, blueberries, gooseberries, currants, blackberries. For example, watermelon and melon should be consumed in moderation because they contain more carbohydrates. As you already understand, it is necessary to consume sour fruits and berries, they will be more useful and will not increase blood sugar levels sharply and strongly.
Many diabetics ask exactly what foods are allowed, because nutrition is one of the most important factors for them. We will provide you with a list of recommended foods, but I would like to note that this is only a rough list. A more precise diet for diabetes mellitus should be prescribed only by your attending physician, because he knows all your pathologies and medical history. So what foods can you eat:
- vegetable or mushroom soup, okroshka, low-fat fish broth;
- lean meats: chicken, rabbit, veal, beef;
- It is better to take rye or wheat, wholemeal bread from the second loaf;
- Low-fat fish, but it can only be eaten boiled or cooked, fried fish is best removed from the diet. Canned foods can be consumed, but it is important to note that they are in their own juices, other types of canned food are prohibited;
- Cereals should prefer wheat, barley, buckwheat, oats and pearl barley porridge;
- eggs can also be eaten, but no more than 2 eggs a week and only protein is better, but it is better to limit the amount of yolk;
- low-fat dairy products: cottage cheese, milk, yogurt, low-fat hard cheese;
- Non-sweet varieties of fruits and berries (apple, kiwi, grapefruit) should be preferred;
- compote, jelly and even sweets can be consumed, but it is very important that they are based on sorbitol or saccharin;
- Cucumbers, squash, tomatoes, squash, lettuce, cabbage and eggplant are the preferred vegetables. It is very good to use these vegetables raw (for example, in salads);
- Potatoes can be eaten in moderation and it is very important to soak them in water before cooking, because when soaked they release starch, which is harmful in diabetes and can increase sugar;
- herbal teas, sour berry juice, uzvar.
As you can see, the list of allowed foods is very long, and the main thing is to just follow a proper diet and eat more vegetables and fruits. A diabetic diet can be very tasty, but the most important thing is to understand that your health and well-being depend on it.
It is contraindicated for diabetics and there are some foods that are banned because it can significantly increase blood sugar. After all, it is a diet that affects sugar levels. Which food is contraindicated and which products are better to avoid:
- fatty meat broth;
- whole grain bread;
- It is better to avoid fatty meat, pork, lamb, duck and goose. Smoked meat, sausages and lard should also be excluded from the diet;
- flour products - cakes, bread and various types of biscuits. Butter and flat dough, as well as products made from them, are strictly prohibited;
- is worth giving up coffee and any coffee drink;
- oily fish, salted or smoked fish, canned food (if cooked in oil or tomato);
- fried, spicy and fatty foods are completely contraindicated, as they will only increase sugar and can lead to the development of any other disease;
- salted cheeses, cottage cheese masses and just sweet and greasy cottage cheese, butter and cream;
- high-fat dairy products;
- legumes (peas, beans), pickles and pickled vegetables;
- fruits are prohibited: all kinds of grapes, bananas, dates, strawberries, figs;
- jam, sugar, chocolate and various candy products;
- energy and carbonated drinks;
- juices with high glucose (grapes, many fruits), as well as sugar-based lemonade;
- You should also forget about white rice, semolina and all kinds of pasta.
Properly chosen diet is very important for people suffering from diabetes. In diabetes, a diet is simply necessary, and restricting certain foods can make a patient's life much easier. So, everything is in your hands, remember that following a certain diet will make treatment much easier.
When diagnosing diabetes, it is very important to remember that the main thing is proper treatment and proper diet. For some reason, many people forget their diet and think that pills or insulin prescribed by a doctor normalize blood sugar, and this is not entirely wrong, because frequent drops in sugar can lead to the development of other more serious diseases. Often, this disease affects the eyes, heart and joints. Many people are happy with diabetes, but in some ways you need to limit yourself.
Proper treatment, nutrition, and a physically active lifestyle are the key to a long and happy life for a diabetic. Whatever type of diabetes is diagnosed, treatment is needed, and nutrition should be adjusted immediately. Yes, diabetes mellitus is one of the incurable diseases that can lead to other diseases (although scientists have been trying to find a cure for many years), but if you learn to live properly with it, you will live a long and happy life. Remember, quality treatment and diet are the most important things for diabetes.